HOBART, Australia (AP): The warning signs were evident when a mostly full-strength West Indies lost a tour match by 10 wickets to a Cricket Australia selection with six players making their first-class debuts. Against Australia’s Test team, ranked No. 3 in the world, the mostly young and inexperienced players from the Caribbean never stood a chance, losing by an innings and 212 runs yesterday inside three days at Bellerive Oval. Fast bowler James Pattinson took five wickets in the second innings to complement fellow paceman Josh Hazlewood’s four-wicket haul in the first. Off-spin bowler Nathan Lyon, playing in his 50th Test, took three vital first-innings wickets that placed the West Indies in early trouble. And then there was the Australian batting. AUSTRALIA SATISFIED Australia declared their first innings on 583-4 led by Man of the Match Adam Voges’ unbeaten 269 and record 449-run fourth-wicket partnership with Shaun Marsh. The West Indies were forced to follow-on earlier yesterday when they scored just 223-9 in their first innings injured paceman Shannon Gabriel (left ankle) could not bat in either innings. The match ended before tea yesterday when the West Indies led by Darren Bravo’s 108 in the first innings, and Kraigg Brathwaite’s 94 in the second were bowled out for 148. The West Indies lost 14 wickets in a session and a half. The team announced yesterday that Gabriel would return home due to the injury and a tour replacement would be named in the coming days. Pattinson (5-27) took up where Hazlewood left off in a West Indies first innings dominated by Bravo’s seventh Test century. Pattinson’s haul included the second-innings wicket of Bravo for four, ensuring the West Indies batsman was dismissed twice in 37 minutes. The West Indies resumed on 207-6 yesterday morning in their first innings before Hazlewood (4-45) cleaned up the tail. Resuming on 94, Bravo hit two boundaries off Peter Siddle in the first over to reach the century mark. Brathwaite tried vainly to notch a late century in the second innings, hitting four boundaries in a row, before being bowled by Hazlewood to end the match. “To win in three days was very satisfying,” Australia captain Steve Smith said. West Indies captain Jason Holder said the big loss wasn’t unfamiliar to him or a team hit by player strikes, pay disputes, coach suspensions and a decision by many of the top players to choose lucrative international Twenty20 league contracts over Test duty. “It’s a situation we’ve been in for the past few months, the past few years, really,” Holder said. “We need to be more disciplined… to spend more time in the middle. Hopefully, we can come back strong in the second Test.” SCOREBOARD RECORDPARTNERSHIP AUSTRALIA 1st Innings 583-4 decl. WEST INDIES 1st Innings (overnight 207 for six) D.M. Bravo c Lyon b Siddle 108 K. Roach c wk Nevill b Hazlewood 31 J. Taylor b Hazlewood 0 J. Warrican not out 2 S Gabriel absent hurt Extras (b7, lb10, w1, nb5) 23 TOTAL (all out, 70 overs) 223 Fall of wickets: 1-17 (Brathwaite), 2-58 (Chandrika), 3-78 (Samuels), 4-78 (Blackwood), 5-89 (Ramdin), 6-116 (Holder), 7-215 (Roach), 8-215 (Taylor), 9-223 (Bravo) Bowling: Hazlewood 18-5-45-4, Pattinson 15-0-68-0 (w1, nb5), Siddle 15-5-36-2, Lyon 19-6-43-3, Marsh 3-1-14-0. WEST INDIES 2nd innings (following on) K. Brathwaite b Hazlewood 94 R. Chandrika c Smith b Pattinson 0 D.M. Bravo b Pattinson 4 M. Samuels c Warner b Pattinson 0 +D. Ramdin c Warner b MR Marsh 4 *J. Holder c wk Nevill b Pattinson 17 K. Roach c wkp Nevill b Hazlewood 3 J. Taylor c Pattinson b Hazlewood 12 J. Warrican not out 6 S. Gabriel absent hurt Extras (lb1, w1, nb3) 5 TOTAL (all out; 36.3 overs) 148 Fall of wickets: 1-2 (Chandrika), 2-20 (Bravo), 3-24 (Samuels), 4-24 (Blackwood), 5-30 (Ramdin), 6-60 (Holder), 7-91 (Roach), 8-117 (Taylor), 9-148 (Brathwaite). Bowling: Hazlewood 10.3-3-33-3, Pattinson 8-2-27-5 (w1, nb2), Siddle 7.-1-34-0, Marsh 7-0-36-1 (nb1), Lyon 4-0-17-0. Result: Australia won by an innings and 212 runs. Man-of-the-Match: Adam Voges. Toss: Australia. Umpires: M. Erasmus, I. Gould; TV – C Gaffaney.
“I have a real issue with that.” Transit advocates were disappointed that the governor made even deeper cuts to public transportation than he had offered in January. In his earlier draft, he had proposed cutting about $1.1 billion from transit; now the trim would be up to $1.3 billion. Roger Snoble, CEO of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, said the governor’s plan cuts about $230 million in expected funds for transit projects in Los Angeles County, leaving the region with only about $63 million in state funding. Metro’s overall budget is about $3 billion. “There’s nothing good that I can see in it,” Snoble said. “It will take a lot of money away from the agency that could be used to improve mobility within Los Angeles County. That’s something we wouldn’t like to see at all, particularly at a time when we had such great momentum going.” The cuts mean the agency will have to scale back some of its capital projects, he said, though the Metro board has yet to decide which areas will take the hit. Snoble said MTA officials will travel to Sacramento this week and in coming weeks to lobby lawmakers and the governor to restore some of the transit funding. Other highlights of Schwarzenegger’s proposed 2007-08 budget include: General fund spending on K-12 education will be $41 billion, or about $1.2 billion more than the 2006-07 budget. The governor proposed paying down $3.1 billion in bond debt, or about $1.6 billion more than required, putting the state on track to pay back the 2004 Economic Recovery Bonds 14 years ahead of schedule. Colleges will face fee increases of 10 percent at California State University campuses and 7 percent at University of California campuses. Political analyst Sherry Bebitch Jeffe of the University of Southern California said Democratic complaints represent standard negotiating posture. In the end, the governor may face more resistance from Republican lawmakers concerned about the state spending too much and continuing to maintain an operating deficit, she said. firstname.lastname@example.org (916) 446-6723 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! SACRAMENTO – Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger proposed Monday a revised $146 billion spending plan for next year that cuts social services and public transit, but makes early payments on debt and avoids tax hikes. Democratic lawmakers were upset by some of the cuts, vowing to fight the plan unless some of them are restored. Schwarzenegger’s new spending plan for 2007-08 varies from the first draft he released in January by increasing spending on education, prison health care and social service caseloads, while making larger cuts in transit. He also wants to raise $1 billion by privatizing EdFund, a program created in 1997 that provides loan guarantees to students. The May revise also allows a $1.4 billion operating deficit, while previously Schwarzenegger had proposed to fully eliminate it. That deficit was as high as $16 billion when Schwarzenegger first took office, and he has decreased it every year. “We have a budget that is fiscally responsible, fully funds education, continues to pay down our debt and leaves California with a prudent reserve of $2.2 billion,” Schwarzenegger said. “And for the fourth year in a row, we are not raising taxes.” Schwarzenegger proposed a state general fund of $104 billion – an increase of about 1.5 percent from the current year – with the additional spending coming from sources such as the federal government and bonds. Assembly Speaker Fabian Nu ez, D-Los Angeles, said the proposal was “just plain bad” and he compared it to the governor’s more partisan agenda of his 2005 special election. “This budget punishes low and middle-income families, who work hard and play by the rules,” Nu ez said. “The administration wants to pay off Wall Street early, even if it means that kids on Main Street do without.
Former Newcastle and Manchester City defender Steve Howey joined the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast show to preview the upcoming Capital One Cup clash between the two sides.The Magpies come into the game on a back of a superb 2-1 Premier League victory against Tottenham, while the Blues will still be smarting from their 2-1 defeat to West Ham at Upton Park.Howey went on to discuss St James’ Park chief Mike Ahsley’s £2million loan to Glasgow Rangers and told Alan Brazil and Ray Wilkins: “You always think the money should be staying at Newcastle, rather than Ashley dipping in here, there and everywhere.”Do you believe Steve Howey is right? Leave your thoughts below…
A Los Angeles County jail inmate filed a claim Monday stating that his throat was cut during recent race riots because sheriff’s deputies failed to segregate Latino and black inmates in his unit. The claim by Juan Jose Aragon is the first in a large number expected to be filed by inmates injured in the February riots. In recent meetings, the Board of Supervisors has expressed concerns that many inmates could sue the county, costing taxpayers millions of dollars. Aragon could not be reached for comment. A claim is normally filed prior to a lawsuit. In his claim, Aragon, 34, alleges that deputies segregated other units, but failed to segregate his after the riots at the Pitchess Detention Center in Castaic. He maintains that his throat was cut during a riot that broke out as he slept. Aragon had been arrested in January by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration on unspecified felony charges, officials said. Sheriff’s Correctional Services Division Chief Marc Klugman said he hadn’t seen the claim, but said the Sheriff’s Department does not operate a segregated jail system. “What we did was segregate those individuals that were involved in the initial rioting,” Klugman said. “If more rioting occurred, and it appeared additional segregation was required, that’s what we did. “But segregation is a bad option. It creates more problems than it resolves and that’s why we quickly as possible reintegrated the entire population.” Since the rioting that left two inmates dead and more than 150 injured, Klugman said he has embarked on a plan to fix long-standing problems in the jails by moving female inmates out of the Twin Towers Correctional Facility so high-security male inmates can be incarcerated there. “We’re on track to do the things we planned and are hopeful that will alleviate most of the future problems,” he said. email@example.com (213) 974-8985 AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE‘Mame,’ ‘Hello, Dolly!’ composer Jerry Herman dies at 88160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
4 targets Arsenal legend Thierry Henry is interested in taking charge of French side Bordeaux, says ex-Gunners boss Arsene Wenger, following the departure of Gus Poyet after his rant as club chiefs over transfers. (Corse Matin)Tottenham Hotspur are likely to move their match against Manchester City in October to a day later (Monday, 29) so they avoid a fixture clash with an American football game and can play the game at Wembley Stadium. (Daily Mail)Extending Eden Hazard’s contract is now a top priority at Chelsea, with the Premier League club reportedly hopeful a new £300,000-per-week deal will persuade the Belgian star to stay at Stamford Bridge for the long term. (Daily Mail) Cavani ‘agrees’ to join new club and will complete free transfer next summer 4 4 4 Chelsea are set to offer Eden Hazard £300,000-a-week to convince him to stay at the Bridge targets LATEST Arsene Wenger says Thierry Henry wants the Bordeaux job REVEALED LIVING THE DREAM The biggest market value losers in 2019, including Bale and ex-Liverpool star Tony Cascarino backs Everton to sign two strikers for Carlo Ancelotti Watford centre-back Younes Kaboul could leave the club for French side Nantes, after Hornets head coach Javi Gracia appeared to cast doubt on his future at Vicarage Road. (Watford Observer)Stoke City are preparing a £6.5million bid for Brentford midfielder Ryan Woods, although Swansea are also keen to sign the 24-year-old. (Daily Telegraph)The Potters are also keen on signing Derby County midfielder Tom Huddlestone, 31, on loan until the end of the season. (Daily Mail)PSG are targeting a late move for Croatia midfielder Ivan Rakitic, but Barcelona are not entertaining any offers for the 30-year-old, whose buyout clause stands at €125m (£112.2m). (Marca) IN DEMAND Kevin De Bruyne ‘loves Man City and wants to keep winning’, reveals father Ruben Loftus-Cheek did not feature for Chelsea against Arsenal – will he stay at the club this season? Latest transfer gossip on talkSPORT.com Real Madrid star and former Tottenham midfielder Luka Modric has described claims he contacted Inter Milan about a summer transfer as “the greatest nonsense in history”. (Daily Mirror)Everton will turn down an improved offer of over £22million from RB Leipzig for Ademola Lookman to keep the 20-year-old forward at Goodison Park this season. (The Times)Meanwhile, Toffees duo Yannick Bolasie and Muhamed Besic also look to be heading to the Championship with Middlesbrough on loan. (Daily Star)Manchester City youngster Oleksandr Zinchenko could be set to join Real Betis on a season-long loan, according to The Sun. The 21-year-old Ukrainian midfielder made played 14 appearances for City last season and is likely to get more playing time with the Spanish club than with the crowded Etihad squad. (The Sun) moving on Where every Premier League club needs to strengthen in January Man United joined by three other clubs in race for Erling Haaland Arsenal transfer news LIVE: Ndidi bid, targets named, Ozil is ‘skiving little git’ Top nine Premier League free transfers of the decade Here’s a round-up of the latest news, rumours and gossip from Tuesday’s newspapers and online… RANKED There is uncertainty is surrounding the immediate future of Ruben Loftus-Cheek at Chelsea, with the European transfer window closing in ten days. Reports claim the 22-year-old England midfielder is looking for a loan move to Spain to guarantee him more playing time. (Daily Mirror)However, other reports suggest the Blues are keen to keep Loftus-Cheek at the club, at least until the Premier League transfer window re-opens in January. It comes after the 22-year-old was left out of Maurizio Sarri’s squad for Saturday’s win over Arsenal. (Daily Telegraph)There is said to be a ‘50% chance’ Bayern Munich defender Jerome Boateng could join Paris Saint-Germain in the next few days, having previously been linked with a summer move to Manchester United. (Sky Sports)Tottenham defender Cameron Carter-Vickers is wanted by Championship side Swansea City on loan, but could face competition from Ipswich, where the USA international has already played for a spell. (Daily Mirror)
Kilcar man and FG Seanad candidate John McNulty.DONEGAL businessman John McNulty has said tonight that he will resign if he is elected to the Seanad tomorrow.He told Fine Gael party officials that he will not take up his seat.Mr McNulty, co-manager of his local senior football club Kilcar, has been caught up in a political storm not of his own making. Earlier today former junior minister Dinny McGinley blamed party headquarters for the fiasco which began when he was appointed to a museums quango just days before being nominated to run in the Seanad by-election.Ironically many Government TDs had already voted for him before the political crisis erupted.So Mr McNulty may still be elected to the seat.However a source close to the Kilcar man told us tonight: “John has assured Fine Gael that he will immediately resign his seat if he is elected. “John’s an honourable man and won’t want to see a new political crisis engulf the party.” McNULTY: ‘I’LL RESIGN SEANAD SEAT IF ELECTED’ was last modified: October 9th, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:john mcnultykilcarresignSeanad
Embed from Getty ImagesSunderland boss Chris Coleman insisted they can still avoid relegation following their 1-0 defeat against QPR.Black Cats goalkeeper Jason Steele was sent off five minutes into the second half at Loftus Road, where teenage forward Ebere Eze scored the winner just after the hour mark.It left Coleman’s side rooted to the bottom of the Championship, four points from safety.But Coleman said: “We’ve got to keep going. The teams around us keep dangling carrots in front of us and as long as they’re not pulling away then we have to keep going.“If we can just get that win we can close the gap to a point. The players have got to show heart.”Embed from Getty ImagesSteele was red-carded after he dashed outside of his penalty area to meet Darnell Furlong’s punt forward, misjudged the bounce of the ball and then used his hand to direct it away from QPR forward Paul Smyth.Coleman said: “To have the keeper sent off five minutes into the second half, you can easily think: ‘Here we go again. It’s never going to change’.“We get a man sent off and then concede. But the boys didn’t buckle today in terms of their grit. We kept going until the end. It was always going to be hard for us after the sending-off.“We lost, but we showed a bit of personality. We didn’t whimper out of this one. We were in the game all through the game.“We are lacking confidence, but in terms of the performance and the mentality there was nothing wrong with that.” Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebookby Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksRecommended for youAspireAbove.comRemember Pauley Perrette? Try Not To Smile When You See Her NowAspireAbove.comUndoLifestly.com25 Celebs You Didn’t Realize Are Gay – No. 8 Will Surprise WomenLifestly.comUndoUsed Cars | Search AdsUsed Cars in Tuen Mun Might Be Cheaper Than You ThinkUsed Cars | Search AdsUndoTopCars15 Ugliest Cars Ever MadeTopCarsUndoezzin.com20 Breathtaking Places to See Before You Dieezzin.comUndoFood World Magazine15 Fruits that Burn Fat Like CrazyFood World MagazineUndoDrhealth35 Foods That Should Never Be Placed in the RefrigeratorDrhealthUndoHappyTricks.comHer House Always Smells Amazing – Try her Unique Trick!HappyTricks.comUndo
Published in 2002, “Es’kia” is a collection of essays and public speeches spanning 30 years. The author’s memorabilia such as this poster, are available for sale at the Es’kia Institute, which is inspired by Es’kia Mphahlele’s work.(Images:Es’kia Institute)Khanyi Magubane The South African literary fraternity is in mourning following the death of world-renowned writer Professor Es’kia Mphahlele at his hometown in the Limpopo province on 27 October 2008.The celebrated writer, academic cultural and social activist, died at a hospital near his house in Lebowakgomo, where he had since retired, north of South Africa at the age of 88.His family confirmed that he died of natural causes at the hospital.In paying tribute to the late writer, minister of arts and culture Dr Pallo Jordaan said of Mphahlele, “Soft-spoken, humble, urbane, cosmopolitan, erudite and exuding ubuntu, Es’kia Mphahlele embodied in his person and in his work what he described as “the personification of the African paradox – detribalised, westernised but still African.”The legendary wordsmith has contributed greatly to the literary community, both in South Africa and internationally.Mphahlele was the author of two autobiographies, novels, more than thirty books of short stories; two verse plays and a number of poetry anthologies.Fondly referred to as “the man of African Letters” he’s best known for his first book Man must live published in 1947. He is also revered for his book Down second Avenue, a vivid autobiography published in 1959 in which he describes his early years growing up in rural northern South Africa.Published in 1959, Down second Avenue, is an autobiography by Mphahlele, which has been translated into 10 European languages as well Japanese and Hebrew. The book was banned in South Africa in 1966 under the Publications and Controls Board Act. It was later unbanned in 1978.His book The African Image, which includes essays, literary and cultural as well as political commentary was published in London in 1962.In 1957, Mphahlele was offered a job teaching in a Church Mission Society school in Lagos. He spent the next 20 years in Nigeria and Kenya, where he was the director of the Chemchemi Cultural Centre.He then moved on to Zambia, France and the United States, where he earned a doctoral degree from the University of Denver in 1968. He went on to lecture at the University of Pennsylvania.He returned to South Africa in 1977, where he joined the University of the Witwatersrand, becoming the first professor of the institution and founded the African literature department.Born to be a writer“It has been my fate to be a teacher and writer. The imagination is my regular beat as it is also the workshop of my mind; the territory of ideas, knowledge, thought and emotion is my hunting ground,” wrote Mphahlele in 1993.Born on December 17 1919, he was a herd boy in the then Northern Transvaal.Although he was born in Marabastad in Pretoria, while he was still a young boy, his parents sent him to live with his paternal grandmother. He returned to Pretoria to start his formal education. After high school, where he obtained a school-leaving certificate (an equivalent of grade 10), Mphahlele went on to study at Adams College, where he qualified as a teacher in 1940.He completed his grade 12 while working two jobs as a teacher and a shorthand typist.After a short stint in politics – he was part of a group of young members of the ANC who formed the ANC youth league – Mphahlele returned to his passion; education.He took up a post, teaching English and Afrikaans at the Orlando High School, in Soweto in the early 1940s.His teaching career was however short-lived. During his tenure at Orlando High, he encountered graduates from the legendary Fort Hare University, which has produced some of South Africa’s greatest thinkers, and Mphahlele was inspired to get involved in a number of advocacy activities.He joined the Transvaal African Teachers Association (TATA).The 1949 Eislen Commission on Native Education, inspired by the-then recently elected minister of Native Affairs Dr. H.F. Verwoerd, recommended a radically new system of education for black South African students, which TATA, along with other teacher organisations in other parts of the country opposed.For his participation in move against oppressive act, Mphahlele was one of a number of teachers who were permanently banned from teaching in South Africa.With his teaching career over, Mphahlele starting a long writing career, with his first book Man Must live, gaining him much recognition.In the next era of his life as a writer, Mphahlele pursued a career in journalism in the 1950s.Mphahlele wrote a series of short stories published in Drum magazine. His work helped to consolidate the short story tradition in South African literature, which is recognised among the best in the world.Writers which the Drum-era produced, include Bessie Head, Arthur Maimane, Todd Matshikiza, James Matthews, Bloke Modisane, Casey Motsisi, Lewis Nkosi, Richard Rive, and Can Themba.When Mphahlele left South Africa to live in exile, his literary and academic career developed significantly.During his 20 years abroad, he published two collections of short stories, which followed shortly after his first book. While in West Africa, he published The Living and the Dead in 1961.Six years later, in East Africa, he published In Corner B.The contents of both collections of short stories are included in The Unbroken Song (1986), which also contains some of Mphahlele’s poems.As part of his Master’s thesis, in 1962 he published The African Image, which provides a historical perspective of South African literature. This, he juxtaposed with the way European writers often dealt with African subjects in their texts. He later revised the book and a second edition appeared in 1974.For his PhD, he produced The Wanderers, a novel of exile originally submitted as a dissertation for his PhD in creative writing.A writer of excellenceProfessor Es’kia Mphahlele has received many awards for his work in his lifetime. Some of his achievements include being nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1969.In 1984 he was awarded the prestigious Les Palmes Academiques by the French Government for his contribution to French Language and Culture.In 1998 former President Nelson Mandela awarded him the Order of the Southern Cross, the highest recognition granted by the South African Government.In 2000, he was acknowledged as, Writer Of The Century by Tribute Magazine.In 2001, the University Of Venda for Science and Technology opened the Es’kia Mphahlele Centre for African Studies.He has over 10 honorary doctorates from Universities across the world.Over the years, many prominent South African politicians, writers and social commentators have paid tribute to Mphahlele.Writer and literature Nobel laureate Nadine Gordimer, describes Mphahlele as one of Africa’s greatest minds,“ … From exile, on his return to us, Mphahlele brought back experience, hard-won against homesickness, of cultural administration, educational methods and scholarly advances.“We need his experience, his wisdom, and above all his keenly critical mind among us to achieve a South Africa and an African Renaissance to fulfil an Africa, in the words of Steve Biko, ‘self-defined, not defined by others’ politically, economically, socially, culturally or, philosophically.”Professor Kader Asmal, former South African cabinet minister and member of parliament said of Mphahlele, “Es’kia Mphahlele’s life’s work is an inspiration to all of us. He remains the quintessential teacher who is at the same time the perpetual student. His commitment to education is unequivocal.”From Rhodes University, Prof Guy Butler described Mphahlele as a writer who was a leader amongst his peers in many ways, “Es’kia Mphahlele’s position as a pioneer among the writers of Southern Africa is secure. He is more than a major figure in the intellectual resistance to apartheid; he is an eloquent exponent of African awareness and values: of African humanism, of generosity, and plain, heroic magnitude of mind.”Related StoriesSouth African English South African literatureUseful LinksThe Es’kia Mphahlele institute Department of arts and cultureDo you have any comments or queries about this article? Email Khanyi Magubane at: Khanyim@mediaclubsouthafrica.com
The top image of the port of Sona, Fukushima prefecture, Japan, is sourced from Google Earth and is dated September 2010. The bottom image was taken in April 2011 by SumbandilaSat and shows the extensive tsunami damage in the area. (Image: Sunspace) South Africa’s maritime domain, including the area around the Prince Edward Islands.(Image: Sea Around Us project) Former science and technology minister Naledi Pandor expressed her thanks to Japan for its continuing collaboration with South Africa.(Image: Janine Erasmus) MEDIA CONTACTS • Anacletta Koloko Science communication unit, South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement +27 12 392 9338 RELATED ARTICLES • Space science thriving in SA • SA’s space capabilities set to grow • Great astronomy, with or without SKA • Pandor: we did it • New Dawn satellite now in orbitJanine Erasmus The science of earth observation (EO) is gaining ground in South Africa. It gives us a new perspective on our planet, helps us understand our environment, and uses satellite information to anticipate climate variations such as drought or floods. This was the message at the Space Science Colloquium that took place at the University of Pretoria (UP) in early October. Organised by the Japanese embassy in South Africa, along with the national Department of Science and Technology (DST), the event brought scientists from the two countries together to discuss the latest developments in EO, micro-satellites and astronomy. The colloquium was co-hosted by the Nairobi Research Station of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and supported by South Africa’s National Research Foundation. Its theme was Promoting Space Exploration and Earth Observation: Contribution of Japan and South Africa to Humanity.The event coincided with the first day of World Space Week, which was first held in 1999 and celebrates its 13th anniversary in 2012. It takes place every year from 4 to 10 October and this year is held under the theme Space for Human Safety and Security. EO can also help in assessing water quality through the mapping of eutrophication – the excessive growth of plant matter on a water surface when nutrients are present in abundance, often because of the addition of chemicals – as well as fire scar mapping and damage assessment: Another use for EO is to detect change in land use, for instance the growth of informal settlements, and uncover other crucial information that could affect the ecology of an area or the safety of residents. For instance, if the settlement is built on agricultural land or wetlands, or is located near or under electricity pylons, the people and fauna and flora could be at risk. Other EO applications that have a benefit for society are disaster response and management, atmospheric pollution observation, and the monitoring of deforestation.Learning from the experts In the last 80 years Japan’s space industry has come along in leaps and bounds, said former science and technology minister Naledi Pandor, speaking at her last engagement in that position, and South Africa can learn much from the Asian island nation. “We have good relations with Japan, our most important commercial partner in Asia,” she said in her opening address. “They are working with us in areas such as biotechnology, information technology, the development of manufacturing technology capacity, renewable energy, and the development of capacity in space.” These are key areas into which the DST invests its resources, added Pandor. “The Japanese government pays particular attention to three key areas – funding of basic research, strong university partnerships, and strong protection of intellectual rights,” she said. “We are attempting to follow suit, to learn from them.” South Africa’s funding of basic research has grown in the last decade and the country recently established an agency to protect university intellectual property. “We’ve learned a lot from Japan but we can still learn more,” said Pandor. “We need to focus more strongly on university and private sector partnerships if we want to make the most of opportunities.” She named the relationship between industry and universities as a massive opportunity for entrepreneurship and job creation, and added that South Africa has to make better use of the transfer of technology contracts, as well as the expiry of drug patents, to create more opportunities. “We are lucky to have a competent core of scientists who are world-class in technology and innovation, so the base is there,” Pandor said. “Our scientists achieve very well and hold good rankings in the international arena, but we need to grow the ability to commercialise the intellectual property they produce.” South Africa has to work faster to accelerate this commercialisation, she said – if not, it will always be the client of others.Imaging for the good of mankind Climate change specialist Dr Jane Olwoch, MD of the South African National Space Agency’s (Sansa) earth observation division, said that satellite imagery helps people to understand the current situation in terms of land use and degradation. Sansa has a number of operational themes in its EO programme, including environmental and resource management, disaster management, industrial activities, and urban planning and development. Based at Hartebeeshoek, west of Pretoria and Johannesburg, the core business of Sansa’s EO division is data reception and processing, image archiving, dissemination of information, and development of applications. Satellite information is received at Hartebeeshoek, explained Olwoch, and once it is processed by a bank of 14 dual and quad core processors, it is archived in an 80-terabyte online catalogue, with older data held in a 760-terabyte tape library. The archive goes back to 1972 and is a rich resource, she said, holding, among other data, about 1 900 images captured by the now-defunct SumbandilaSat, South Africa’s second commercial satellite. These are available at no charge. Sansa EO is also responsible for the redistribution of imagery from other sources such as the Ikonos EO satellite and TerraSAR-X – these, however, are not free. “We want more people to access our data, and understand what we can derive from it,” Olwoch said. The catalogue is available online at http://catalogue-sansa.org.za Keeping an eye out from the sky Dr Waldo Kleynhans, a senior researcher at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research’s remote sensing research unit (RSRU), is one of a team of experts that is developing EO applications for South Africa. Two of these projects involve the detection of anthropogenic – man-made, caused by humans – land cover change, and maritime domain awareness, involving the monitoring of South Africa’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and territorial waters. In the first instance, said Kleynhans, the objective of the RSRU project was to develop a change alarm that is able to detect the formation of new settlements and can accurately distinguish between the spread of settlements and natural cycles. “Human settlement expansion is the most pervasive form of land cover change in South Africa,” said Kleynhans. However, to ensure accurate readings, a bi-temporal approach is not always appropriate. This refers to readings that are taken only twice. For example, the land may become drier in winter but a computer, given only a summer and winter reading, will interpret the natural event as a change. “The temporal frequency should be high enough to distinguish change events from natural cycles such as the seasons.” The change alarm program uses Nasa’s moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer on board the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms, which covers the earth every two days or so and delivers images with a resolution of 500 metres – this is the dimension of each pixel in the image. The data are analysed using two change detection methods, both developed by the local team. They are the extended Kalman filter change detection method, and the autocorrelation change detection method. Moving on to the maritime application, Kleynhans named piracy, illegal fishing and oil spills as a few of the potential problems in South Africa’s maritime domain. Monitoring is currently achieved predominantly through transponder-based systems such as satellite automatic identification or long-range identification and tracking, as well as terrestrial-based radar systems such as those situated in Simon’s Town, the seat of the South African navy. “Terrestrial based radar systems are effective but only cover a fraction of South Africa’s total EEZ, which extends over 1.5-million square kilometres,” said Kleynhans. “South Africa has more sea than land to monitor, because the land area is just over 1.2-million square kilometres.” Satellite data and newer technologies such as synthetic aperture radar, he said, play an important role in monitoring this extensive piece of ocean, which includes the area along the coast and also that around the Prince Edward Islands – Marion Island and Prince Edward Island – situated some 1 800km southeast of Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used mostly from the air, from an aircraft or satellite, and uses the flight path of the platform to electronically simulate a large antenna or aperture. The captured information is then used to generate high-resolution remote sensing imagery. SAR is viewed as a potential addition to current maritime monitoring efforts, said Kleynhans, and using the technology, thousands of square kilometres can be surveyed in a single overpass. An international collaboration between bodies such as Pretoria University and the US office of naval research has yielded a system known as the International Collaborative Development for Enhanced Maritime Domain Awareness. “It’s an open source platform,” said Kleynhans, “which everyone can use. We are one of five countries contributing to the database.” The program and web portal is under development by researchers in Chile, Ghana, the Seychelles, South Africa and Mauritius. It provides information that can be freely accessed and analysed by the global maritime community on issues such as wave detection and oil spills. UP’s contribution focuses mostly on vessel detection. Even if a ship switches off its transponder, said Kleynhans, the program will still be able to detect it and in fact, disabling a transponder is often a cue to illegal activity, meaning that the relevant naval or coastal authorities can be alerted in time. “With historic vessel location information, intent detection algorithms are currently being researched, with particular emphasis on illegal fishing and piracy,” he said.
A display of the Clivia miniatra cultivar ‘Kirstenbosch Splendour’, bred by the garden’s bulb expert Graham Duncan grows in the planted avenue of camphor trees on the Kirstenbosch premises. This image was selected as the cover photograph for the garden’s centenary publication, written by South African ecologist Professor Brian Huntley. Kirstenbosch has become an international showcase of South Africa’s natural beauty, and a leader in botanical and zoological science, research and conservation. (Images: Adam Harrower) The builders of Kirstenbosch: in 1973 Brian Rycroft presented gold watches to eight Kirstenbosch stalwarts, each with more than 25 years’ service. From left, Abraham Basson, William Basson, Frank Krieger, David Mclean, John Fredericks, Brian Rycroft, George Basson, Nicholas Josephus and James Nicholas. A photograph from the 1920s shows the slopes on which the protea and erica sections were developed in the 1960s. (Images: Sanbi) MEDIA CONTACTS • Belinda van der Merwe Random Struik +27 21 460 5400 RELATED ARTICLES • Kirstenbosch best place to picnic • Citizen science to toads’ rescue • Floral wealth in caring hands • Research output rises, papers double Wilma den HartighIn 2013 the world-famous Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens in Cape Town celebrates its 100th anniversary. A beautiful coffee table book, written by acclaimed South African ecologist Professor Brian Huntley, has been published in honour of the garden’s centenary.Kirstenbosch: the most beautiful garden in Africa, tells the story of the garden’s establishment, its setbacks, triumphs and the remarkable people who helped to make it what it is today – an internationally renowned botanical, science and conservation facility.Through vivid photographs, art work, valuable archive material and the author’s detailed, yet accessible writing style, Huntley tells the tale of a garden that has captured the hearts of many people for centuries.The book is the first comprehensive account of the history and progress of the botanical facility since Compton’s 1965 publication, Kirstenbosch, Garden for a Nation, which went out of print many decades ago.Compton’s history only covers developments at the botanical garden until around 1963, and subsequent publications lack coverage of the important developments of the past two decades.Huntley says the approaching centenary inspired him to write an updated account of the Kirstenbosch story.“When I retired I wanted to write something that brings the history of the garden into popular media and I wanted it to be technically accurate and visually attractive,” he says.And the book achieves both objectives.A combination of beauty and scienceIn the book Huntley tells how Kirstenbosch grew to become an international showcase of South Africa’s natural beauty, and a leader in botanical and zoological science, research and conservation.Huntley believes this makes it one of the best gardens in the world.“What distinguishes a proper botanical garden of global standing is a combination of flora, landscaping and strong science and education programmes,” he says.A fascinating story, told by an expertHuntley is an internationally respected conservationist with over 45 years of field research and management experience in many African ecosystems.Since his retirement from the South African National Biodiversity Institute (Sanbi), he’s been working as a consultant to several UN agencies on conservation projects.What sets the book apart is Huntley’s personal love for the gardens. He has a long-standing relationship with Kirstenbosch spanning over 50 years. During this time he lived on the premises for 19 years, which afforded him the privilege of daily walks in the garden and the opportunity to get to know it better than just about anyone else.“Over the years, I got a good sense for the seasons in the garden,” he says.He also dedicates numerous pages to the garden’s conservation and education initiatives, and its links with the community.Ensuring that the garden can be enjoyed by people from all walks of life, and not only tourists visiting Cape Town, is a strong priority for staff at Kirstenbosch. Through its school programmes more than 20 000 underprivileged children have an opportunity to experience the beauty of Kirstenbosch every year. And by staging its popular annual series of concerts, Kirstenbosch brings in thousands of cultural and nature lovers to experience the beauty of music outdoors on a summer evening.Compiling the bookEven with so much knowledge about the gardens, Huntley says writing the book was no small feat.“A significant amount of research went into it,” he says. “I had to trawl through databases, archived photos, reports and information going back a century or two.”The book draws on information included in the annual reports published since 1914 by the National Botanic Gardens of South Africa, by its successor, the National Botanical Institute, and from Sanbi.He also included oral history accounts provided by people who have worked at Kirstenbosch for many years.“I’ve picked up many anecdotes and accounts as time went by,” he says.Huntley’s informal tone ensures that the book doesn’t read like a science journal or a history textbook, but more like a conversation about Africa’s most beautiful garden.Uncovering the unexpectedWhile looking through archive photographs, Huntley came across a few surprising facts about Kirstenbosch.“What surprised me is that in the early days of the garden, the first 10 to 30 years of its existence, it was very shabby and makeshift,” he says.Kirstenbosch wasn’t as sophisticated and pristine as it is today, yet it was very well supported.“Supporters in those days were of the highest standing in government, business and society. They were all very passionate about it and believed in the importance of the garden,” he explains.“What people don’t know is that the gardens came from very humble origins.”World-class research and scienceAn extensive range of new and ongoing research takes place at Kirstenbosch. This includes studies at global scale on topics such as climate change modelling and at continental level in specialised fields such as plant taxonomy.Scientists also undertake national research that includes biodiversity assessments, species conservation and vegetation mapping of South Africa.A molecular laboratory, established in 2000 at the Kirstenbosch Research Centre, has made it possible to pioneer research on the evolution of proteas, other fynbos plants and animal groups with special importance in South Africa, in particular reptiles and frogs.“Our national obsession with the big, hairy mammals means we have tended to overlook our lizard fauna,” Huntley says in the book.The Protea Atlas Project, which has been ongoing at Kirstenbosch since 1990, has led to the compilation of probably the biggest, most accurate, geo-referenced database of information on the distribution and abundance of any family of plants, anywhere.This unique database, put together by a small in-house team and hundreds of volunteer field workers under the leadership of scientific officer Tony Rebelo, provides researchers with information to test responses of species to changes in environmental factors.Kirstenbosch in years to comeGoing forward, Huntley believes one of the most important challenges for Kirstenbosch is to maintain the highest standards of professionalism in horticulture, visitor amenities and research.“It must retain its position as a leader in this field,” he says. “It must also remain a centre of innovation.”And is there any part of Kirstenbosch that Huntley thinks of as his favourite little nook? He can’t single out any.“There are too many good places,” he says. “If you wander around the garden, around every corner you will find something nice.”• Slideshow image courtesy of the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens.