The ‘Moult Rate’ (MR) method has been used widely to derive stage-specific growth rates in juvenile copepods. It is the most common field-based method. Unfortunately, the equation underlying the method is wrong and, consequently, large errors in juvenile growth rate estimates are widespread. The equation derives growth from the mean weight of 2 consecutive stages (i and i + 1) and the duration of stage i. The weight change and the period to which this change is attributed are, therefore, offset. We explore this potential source of error in the MR method critically. Errors arise as a result of 2 primary factors: (1) unequal durations of successive stages and (2) unequal rates of growth of successive stages. The method of deriving the mean weight (arithmetic or geometric) also has an impact and is examined. Using a steady-state assumption, a range of scenarios and the errors that arise are examined. The literature is then reviewed and the size of errors resulting from MR method application in both field and laboratory situations is estimated. Our results suggest that the MR method can lead to large errors in growth estimation in any stage, but some stages are particularly prone. Errors for the C5 stage are often large because the following stage (the adult) does not moult, and has a different rate of body weight increase. For the same reason, errors are also great where the following stage is not actively moulting (e.g. when diapausing). In these circumstances, published work has commonly greatly underestimated growth. For example, MR growth ranges from 11 to 47% of the value derived correctly for this stage, gi_corr (calculated assuming the non-moulting stage does not grow). In late stages that are followed by actively moulting stages, the MR method has commonly given values in excess of 150% of gi_corr, but underestimation also occurs, with values <90% of gi_corr. We propose new methods and equations that overcome these problems. These equations are written with and without within-stage mortality included. The equations are relatively insensitive to mortality rates within the range found in the field, but only provided that the stage duration is not determined from moult rate. Stage duration estimates obtained from measuring moulting rates of field-collected animals are very sensitive to mortality rates of the animals prior to capture, and field mortality rates are often high enough to produce dramatic over-estimation of stage duration.
13 months into scrap metal banThe Guyana Metal Recyclers Association (GMRA), the official body for exporters of scrap metal, has reached out to lambast the Government for what it says is the illegal suspension of the trade for more than one year, rendering legitimate businessmen incapable of making a living.Agitated over the suspension of the trade, Secretary of the GMRA Michael Benjamin complained that not only was the license to ply their trade suspended without notice; the suspension for more than one year in itself is illegal.“For 13 months we are without any answers. We are pleading with the Administration to speed up the process because by law, the Government is not allowed to suspend the industry for more than one year… we have lost in the billions,” he bemoaned.Benjamin stated that the suspension has rendered exporters incapable of making a living for their families. He stated that many exporters have bank loans to pay and are unable to honour their contractual oblegations because the business has stalled.Questioning whether this is the good life the coalition Government promised them, Benjamin exposed that scores of workers have been laid off.Referencing this enormous loss, Benjamin is pleading with the Administration to speed up the process of the draft legislation which is aimed at reconfiguring the sector.“They told us that they are going to take the legislation to Cabinet next week and we are hoping that that is realistic because we were told that before. We don’t have time on our hands, our businesses are stalled. We cannot feed our family and pay our mortgage and our bills,” he said, asking the Government to tell them what to do.Last year, Government removed the responsibility of the scrap metal trade from the Central Housing and Planning Authority to the Business Ministry. Since then, the Ministry has been in consultation with various stakeholders and the Association to revamp the sector.The legislation is expected to go to Cabinet next Tuesday for approval. However, Benjamin fears that this is a fool’s promise.Benjamin stated that the sector had to lay off a lot of their workers because there was no work for them. He stated that some 1500 workers depend on the industry for an income.In 2015, Ram and McRae produced a forensic audit report, which revealed that the Scrap Metal Unit within the Central Housing and Planning Authority was accountable for a string of irregularities, including the mishandling of packing procedures for scrap and the expenditure of millions of dollars.It also revealed that the laws governing the scrap metal trade need to be completely revamped. Benjamin said the revamp should be accelerated because the Government cannot shut the trade down for more than a year.It has been 13 months since the scrap metal trade has been stalled.
OAKLAND – The Warriors’ latest championship banner will be raised. The Warriors’ latest ring will be presented. And so before their season opener against the Oklahoma City Thunder on Tuesday at Oracle Arena, the Warriors will have a visual reminder of what drives this franchise.“I’m going to soak it all up,” Warriors guard Klay Thompson said. “It’s going to be fun.”How long will that fun last? Perhaps from October to June. Once again, the Warriors are projected to win another NBA …
26 October 2016The renewable energy industry is a two-fold opportunity: it offers cost- effective, environmentally friendly energy to consumers in Africa and it provides a new avenue of business for entrepreneurs. Five companies are at the forefront of making alternative energy viable on the continent.Solynta EnergySolynta Engineering Team in action! #solar#nigeria#lagos# pic.twitter.com/vcoDDeKIpo— Solynta Energy (@SolyntaEnergy) October 6, 2015Founded by Lagos entrepreneur Uvie Ugono in Nigeria in 2013, Solynta provides solar panel installations to Nigeria, Ghana and South Africa. Operating with little corporate support, the company focuses on installing systems onto schools, healthcare facilities and small businesses. The company also operates a number of solar “filling stations” around Nigeria that offers consumer education, repairs and pre-loaded solar panels.Off Grid ElectricOur customers rely on their mobile devices to make payments https://t.co/3SxVFpiE6c pic.twitter.com/K8YcDs2j7t— Off Grid Electric (@OffGridE) August 18, 2016This Tanzanian small-scale power supplier uses the M-Pesa mobile money service to provide solar power systems, including LED lighting systems, to rural areas. The self-sustaining solar system complete with panels and lithium battery can be installed for as little as US$6 (about R82). It has installed over 10 000 systems in rural Tanzania and Rwanda. The company raised over $25-million (about R344-million) in 2015 that goes towards providing systems, maintenance support and technical training.Ugesi GoldUgesi Gold and EnergyNet’s off-grid energy solution starts generating power at SA school https://t.co/T4tJXNVYIA pic.twitter.com/QHrR3u8jKf— Damilola Ade (@aadedamilola) February 17, 2016A South African energy start-up, Ugesi Gold provides solar battery charging stations, called SolarTurtles, in rural areas where users can charge solar battery packs which are then carried home. In February 2014 the project was proclaimed as a Climate Solver by the World Wildlife Fund that highlights the best technologies in reducing carbon emissions and support energy access while creating awareness of the value of innovation as a tool to tackle climate change.JuabarAnother great concept for #solar mobile phone charging kiosks in rural areas – this one Juabar from Tanzania #tech4D pic.twitter.com/mpOc6zurpO— Anna Lowe (@annawillcreate) January 29, 2016Juabars, Swahili for ‘sun bar’, are becoming a common sight in Tanzania in small towns and urban areas alike. Started in 2013, Juabar travelling solar-powered phone charging kiosks use 50W solar-PV systems to charge up to 20 mobile phones or small electronic appliances at once. The company charges $600 (about R8 200) for start-up equipment and aftersales technical support to entrepreneurs who want to offer charging services to the approximately 30-million mobile users in the country. The stations are also used as mini-hubs for the community “to interact with, learn about, and create their own solar energy solutions.”[email protected] empowers the sustainable economic development of BoP communities through clean energy services and products. #CleanSolcution pic.twitter.com/6D9AGbt4MF— GoodFestival 2016 (@GoodPowWow) October 22, 2016Operating in Kenya and Ethiopia, SolarKiosk converts traditional kiosk-stores with solar panels, enabling it to run on its own power and provide additional services to consumers, including battery charging, refrigeration and internet access. The converted kiosks provide a vital connection for rural communities to the rest of the world. The concept has been featured at the global ideas hub Tedx and won several international innovation awards.Source: AFKInsiderSouthAfrica.info reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SouthAfrica.info material
Pakistan fast bowler Mohammad Amir is all set to play in the high-octane Champions Trophy final against arch-rival India after recovering fully from a back spasm.This is their first Champions Trophy final in the history of the tournament.Team administration confirmed the news about Amir’s participation in the final match against title-holders India at the Kennington Oval on Sunday, the Dawn reported.The 25-year-old was also seen practising at the Oval ground on Friday, two days ahead of the match.Amir was earlier forced to sit-out during his side’s surprising eight-wicket win over England in the first semi- final of the eight-team marquee event at the Sophia Gardens in Cardiff on Wednesday.Rumman Raees had replaced him in Pakistan’s Playing XI during that match.Amir said that Virat Kohli will be under pressure in his first big tournament final as captain.”The Indian team relies on Virat Kohli. He will be under pressure because it’s his first big tournament final as a captain. There’s no doubt that his wicket will give us advantage,” Amir said.”Getting the top three Indian batsmen early on will be crucial,” he added.(With inputs from ANI)
TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Liverpool boss Klopp: Pulisic to Chelsea? Another…by Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool boss Jurgen Klopp has offered his opinion on Chelsea’s deal for Borussia Dortmund winger Christian Pulisic.Liverpool had been in competition with the Stamford Bridge club to land the American this January, but Klopp cooled his interest in the forward and the Blues swooped.Chelsea opted to loan the American back to Germany until the end of the season, at which point the 20-year-old will link up with his new team.And Klopp said: “[He’s] a really good player, another good player for Chelsea. “I’ve known him for a while and followed him [in his career]. Another really skilled boy playing in England.”
A pioneering treatment for high blood sugar and high blood pressure, created by a team from the University of the West Indies (UWI), has won the Minister’s Innovation Awards for 2012. The entry, titled: ‘A Novel Treatment Against Hyperglycemia and Hypertension,’ was adjudged as likely to be the most significant in its effect on the scientific and technological world. It topped a field of 177 entrants in the awards competition developed by the Ministry of Science, Technology, Energy and Mining. The delighted team comprising Dr. Lisa Lindo of the Biochemistry Department, Dr. Trevor Yee of the Natural Products Institute, and Professor Paul Reese of the Chemistry Department, were on hand to collect the Champions ‘Innovator of the Year’ trophy and a cheque for $2 million, at the awards gala and banquet held last night (November 8) at the Jamaica Pegasus hotel, New Kingston. The product also came out on top in the Health and Wellness category, earning the team a further $750,000. “This is a great feeling,” Dr. Lindo said of the win. She explained that the team used the eucalyptus plant in their experiment and found that extracts from the plant were doing better than some popular drugs now in use to lower hypertension and blood sugar. She said they were in the process of patenting the drug and looking forward to have it produced as a supplement to be taken orally. “It is really great because now I am thinking that we can look into more research, more into folklore medicine. We know that everybody looks into drinking these plants but we don’t really know what is in these plants that is causing the effects, so now we have now proved, in this case, what is really in it and what it is good for,” she said. The UWI team shared the spotlight with a group of students from Sunderland Primary School in St. James, who won the Youth Award for their Sunderland Quick Patch, which is designed to fill potholes. They received $1 million and a trophy.Sunderland Other winners on the night were Alison Latchman in the ‘Creativity’ category for Cabbie Chronicles; Leary Myers and Leonardo Clarke of the UWI in the ‘Resource Utilisation Efficiency’ category for Real Time Monitoring and Alert System; Kingsley Palmer in the ‘Resource/Knowledge Valorisation’ category for Agriculture-Water Harvesting and Conservation Techniques; and Ewan Pitter in the Open category, for ‘Renewable Energy Driven Fully Controlled Microcontroller Based On Automated Hydroponic Greenhouse system’. Portfolio Minister, Hon. Phillip Paulwell, said he was pleased that after a brief hiatus, the Ministry has once again begun to salute the achievers and innovators in a spectacular way. He pledged that the competition will be held annually. He explained that the format of this year’s competition is “winners take all” but noted that an arrangement has been reached with the Jamaica Intellectual Property Office (JIPO) to assist all the entrants to properly register their patents. This, in an effort to “add value to your thoughts, to your ideas, to your innovations,” Mr. Paulwell said. Stating that the country’s development will soon be judged on the number of patents registered per annum, he said that “we are going to get our youngsters in schools to …focus now on the sciences (and) to stop thinking that these are hard subjects. We need more Mathematicians, we need more Chemists, we need more Physicists… it is in these areas that we have opportunities that we are going to exploit.” Chief Judge and Dean of the Faculty of Science and Technology, UWI, Professor Ishenkumba Kahwa, noted that the winners were unanimously agreed on by the judges. He noted that the judges did research to verify the originality of the patents and commended the high quality of the entries particularly the information communication technology (ICT) submissions. Distinguished Jamaican-born chemist, Professor Bert Fraser Reid, who has done ground breaking research into the chemistry of sugar, delivered the main address at the black tie awards ceremony, which was a special Jamaica 50th Anniversary event. Professor Reid encouraged the entrants not to give up if they were not successful the first time but to continue trying. The Minister’s Innovation Award was being staged for the fourth time since its introduction in 2005. It is aimed at nurturing a culture of creativity and stimulating or catalyzing innovation through the application of science and technology to drive economic growth and wealth creation. Through the awards, outstanding, innovative individuals and institutions are identified, recognised and rewarded. They are also given assistance to protect and commercialise their innovations. The event itself provides an opportunity to celebrate and promote innovative attributes and cultural values.
Some of the most active companies traded Monday on the Toronto Stock Exchange:Toronto Stock Exchange (16,103.51, up 7.44 points)Pure Technologies Ltd. (TSX:PUR). Technology. Up $4.47, or 100.68 per cent, to $8.91 on 13.2 million shares. The Calgary-based water pipeline technology and inspection company says it has agreed to be sold for more than half a billion dollars to New York-based Xylem Inc.Aurora Cannabis Inc. (TSX:ACB). Health care. Up 22 cents, or 3.10 per cent, to $7.31 on 9.7 million shares. Saskatoon-based medical marijuana producer CanniMed Therapeutics (TSX:CMED) (Down six cents, or 0.30 per cent, to $19.87 on 159,202 shares) is seeking regulatory action in both Saskatchewan and Ontario, the company’s latest push back against a hostile takeover attempt by Aurora Cannabis. CanniMed has applied to securities regulators in both provinces to have Aurora’s hostile offer be considered an “insider bid,” and be treated as such.Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc. (TSX:VRX). Pharmaceutical. Up $1.09, or 4.30 per cent, to $26.45 on 4.7 million shares.Canopy Growth Corp. (TSX:WEED). Health care. Up 49 cents, or 2.52 per cent, to $19.91 on 4.5 million shares.Aphria Inc. (TSX:APH). Health care. Up 59 cents, or 4.38 per cent, to $14.06 on 3.9 million shares.Fortune Minerals Ltd. (TSX:FT). Miner. Up one cent, or 3.70 per cent, to 28 cents on 3.8 million shares.Companies reporting major news:Onex Corp. (TSX:ONEX). Industrials. Up 53 cents, or 0.55 per cent, to $96.07 on 127,657 shares. The Toronto-based private equity company says it has agreed to acquire a U.S. company that manages hundreds of sports, entertainment and business venues including Soldier Field, home to the NFL’s Chicago Bears. Onex didn’t disclose how much it will pay for privately held SMG Holdings Inc., in partnership with its existing management team. The deal is expected to close in early 2018.
WASHINGTON – Warning of economic fallout, congressional Republicans and industry groups pressed President Donald Trump on Tuesday to narrow his plan for across-the-board tariffs on imports of steel and aluminum. Trump appeared unmoved, declaring, “Trade wars aren’t so bad.”The president said he planned to move forward with special tariffs on imported steel and aluminum, contending the U.S. has long been “mistreated” in trade deals.“We’re doing tariffs on steel. We cannot lose our steel industry. It’s a fraction of what it once was. And we can’t lose our aluminum industry,” Trump said during a joint news conference with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Lofven.Hours later, White House economic adviser Gary Cohn, who has opposed the tariffs, announced his plans to depart the White House, another signal that the president intends to go through with the penalties.The president’s pledge for action, which would be in line with a one of his campaign promises, came after House Speaker Paul Ryan of Wisconsin called for a “more surgical approach” that would help avert a potentially dangerous trade war. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky said there was concern Trump’s plan could lead to such disruptive turmoil.“We are urging caution,” McConnell said.Republican Sen. David Perdue of Georgia, who opposes the tariffs, said after meeting Tuesday with White House chief of staff John Kelly that the administration was willing to consider his views. “Absolutely. There’s an openness now,” Perdue said.“I think there’s been a step back,” said Sen. Pat Roberts, R-Kan. “I don’t think he’s reconsidering, but I think he’s trying to figure out what his best step is forward.”But those views sounded more like wishful thinking after Trump’s news conference, in which he reiterated his plans to impose the tariffs of 25 per cent on steel imports and 10 per cent on aluminum imports. He said he’d respond to unfair treatment by foreign countries and huge trade deficits. “We’re going to straighten it out and we’ll do it in a very loving way,” Trump said.The president also reaffirmed the possibility that Canada and Mexico might not face the tariffs if they are willing to offer more favourable terms under the North American Free Agreement, which is being renegotiated.Senior White House adviser Jared Kushner and staff from the State Department and National Security Council will be meeting Wednesday with Mexico’s president and foreign minister in Mexico City.Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin told lawmakers Trump was trying to balance protections for beleaguered steel and aluminum producers while “making sure that we don’t do undue harm to the economy.”“We are not looking to get into trade wars. We are looking to make sure that U.S. companies can compete fairly around the world,” Mnuchin said at a House hearing.Trump has been keenly aware of how the tariffs may play in a March 13 special House election in western Pennsylvania, part of the nation’s steel belt, White House officials have said. The president is headlining a Saturday rally in support of Rick Saccone, who is battling Democrat Conor Lamb in the Republican-leaning district.The dispute over tariffs has exposed a rift between advocates of free trade, who have long dominated GOP circles, and a president who has railed against China and pushed for more protectionist trade policies.Internally, White House officials who oppose the blanket tariffs have urged the administration to limit the countries that would be affected and to impose time limits. This would help the president say he delivered on his promise and still try to avoid possible negative consequences, said Stephen Moore, a former campaign adviser and now an economist with the conservative Heritage Foundation.Republicans in Congress and within Trump’s administration say industries and their workers who need steel and aluminum for their products would be hurt by Trump’s threatened tariffs. They say Americans will face higher costs for new cars, appliances and buildings if the president follows through on his threat and other nations retaliate.Trump has said the tariffs are needed to preserve the American industries and protect national security. But he has also tried to use them as leverage in the current talks to revise NAFTA.Business leaders are mobilizing against the tariffs. The Aluminum Association, a trade group representing 114 member companies with more than 700,000 U.S. jobs, told Trump in a letter Tuesday that it was “deeply concerned” about the effects of the planned tariffs and urged him to seek alternatives such as targeting China and other countries with a history of circumventing trade rules.Ryan said Trump was correct to focus on the problem of the dumping of steel in the U.S. at lower prices. But he said the administration’s approach was “a little too broad and more prone to retaliation.”“What we’re encouraging the administration to do is to focus on what is clearly a legitimate problem and to be more surgical in its approach,” Ryan said.Republicans have suggested they may try to undercut the tariffs if Trump goes ahead with them. But Sen. Jeff Flake, R-Ariz., said he was doubtful the GOP majority would be able to muster the votes to pass legislation to block the special taxes.Flake said it was tough to dissuade Trump because the president “keeps coming back like a homing pigeon on trade deficits.”Mnuchin defended the possible tariffs, telling lawmakers that Trump “loves farmers and the farm community.” Rep. David Young, R-Iowa, responded, “It doesn’t seem so with some of the policies that are coming out.”Mnuchin said the administration hopes to release details on the tariffs this week. “He does understand the potential impacts it has on the economy and I think we have a way of managing through this,” he said.___Associated Press writers Alan Fram, Kevin Freking, Martin Crutsinger and Josh Boak in Washington contributed to this report.___Follow Ken Thomas on Twitter at https://twitter.com/KThomasDC
Greater Noida: Three children were charred to death in a fire triggered by a blast in an electronic transformer in sector phi-III of Greater Noida on Wednesday afternoon. Victim’s family members alleged laxity on part of the electricity department as they made several complaints regarding malfunctioning of the transformer but no one responded.According to police, the deceased were identified as Rinku (13), Golu (8) and Sagar (8), all natives of sector phi-III in Greater Noida. Also Read – India gets first tranche of Swiss bank a/c detailsAs per reports, the incident occurred around 3:00 pm when the children were playing cricket near the transformer. “They were playing cricket at the road near transformer room and entered the room fetch their cricket ball. However, the transformer exploded and all the three children failed to escape the room and were charred in the fire,” an eyewitness said. Meanwhile, the family members have alleged that the transformer has been installed in a room situated at a boundary walled plot but the gates always remained open. Also Read – Tourists to be allowed in J&K from Thursday”We have made several complaints to the electricity department about malfunctioning of this particular transformer but no one ever paid heed to them. Moreover, no attendant was ever appointed in the transformer room while the gates of the plot and shutter of room, where transformer was placed, remained open always,” said one of victim’s family members. Police officials said that they will lodge an FIR into the matter and will investigate. “Police were informed around 4 pm and a team rushed to the spot. We found that the three children were completely charred in the fire triggered by an explosion in electricity transformer. The bodies have been sent for the post-mortem while samples have been collected by forensic team. We will register an FIR into the case and will investigate the matter,” said Shwetabh Pandey, Circle officer-I, Greater Noida. The parents of these deceased kids were working at construction sites. The transformer was placed at the sub station of Noida Power Company limited (NPCL). Following the incident, senior police officials along with officials from NPCL reached the spot. A compensation of Rs 5 lakh was announced for the family members of all three children by NPCL board, said Shwetabh Pandey.